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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12144-12157; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012144

Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21565, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015
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Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2). In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; osteoporosis; obesity; men cadmium; osteoporosis; obesity; men

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Choi, W.-J.; Han, S.-H. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12144-12157.

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