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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8319-8346; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808319
Article

Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility

1,2,* , 3
 and 2
Received: 4 June 2014; in revised form: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
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Abstract: Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI), to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured) to 100 (all defecation safely captured). We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.
Keywords: latrine use behavior; open defecation behavior; child feces disposal; gender; measurement methods; attitudes; behavioral determinants; India latrine use behavior; open defecation behavior; child feces disposal; gender; measurement methods; attitudes; behavioral determinants; India
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jenkins, M.W.; Freeman, M.C.; Routray, P. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8319-8346.

AMA Style

Jenkins MW, Freeman MC, Routray P. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(8):8319-8346.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jenkins, Marion W.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Routray, Parimita. 2014. "Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 8: 8319-8346.



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