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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8347-8367; doi:10.3390/ijerph110808347

Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

1
Food and Environmental Toxicology Unit, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 66, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, P.M.B. 1100, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
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Abstract

Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: mutagenicity; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; estrogenic activity; processed food; pure water sachet mutagenicity; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; estrogenic activity; processed food; pure water sachet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Omoruyi, I.M.; Ahamioje, D.; Pohjanvirta, R. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8347-8367.

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