Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua
AbstractLeptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. View Full-Text
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Bacallao, J.; Schneider, M.C.; Najera, P.; Aldighieri, S.; Soto, A.; Marquiño, W.; Sáenz, C.; Jiménez, E.; Moreno, G.; Chávez, O.; Galan, D.I.; Espinal, M.A. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8301-8318.
Bacallao J, Schneider MC, Najera P, Aldighieri S, Soto A, Marquiño W, Sáenz C, Jiménez E, Moreno G, Chávez O, Galan DI, Espinal MA. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(8):8301-8318.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria C.; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A. 2014. "Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 8: 8301-8318.