Next Article in Journal
Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility
Next Article in Special Issue
Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular Detection of Leptospiral DNA in Environmental Water on St. Kitts
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 8301-8318;

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

University of Medical Sciences of Habana, Havana Atherosclerosis Research and Reference Center, Policlínico 19 de Abril, Tulipán y Panorama, Nuevo Velado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10600, Cuba
Pan American Health Organization, Department of Communicable Diseases and Health Analysis, 525 23rd. St. NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Pan American Health Organization Nicaragua, P.O. Box 1309, Managua, Nicaragua
Ministry of Health of Nicaragua, Costado Oeste Colonia Primero de Mayo, P.O. Box 107, Managua, Postal Sector 15AB, Nicaragua
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospirosis in the Animal—Human-Ecosystem Interface)
Full-Text   |   PDF [676 KB, uploaded 15 August 2014]   |  


Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptospirosis; vulnerability index; socioeconomic factors; risk; outbreaks; Nicaragua leptospirosis; vulnerability index; socioeconomic factors; risk; outbreaks; Nicaragua

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bacallao, J.; Schneider, M.C.; Najera, P.; Aldighieri, S.; Soto, A.; Marquiño, W.; Sáenz, C.; Jiménez, E.; Moreno, G.; Chávez, O.; Galan, D.I.; Espinal, M.A. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 8301-8318.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top