Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7931-7952; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807931
Review

Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature

1,* email, 2email and 2,3email
Received: 17 April 2014; in revised form: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Health related Quality of Life)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Introduction: High noise exposure during critical periods in gestation is a potential stressor that may result in increased risk of implantation failure, dysregulation of placentation or decrease of uterine blood flow. This paper systematically reviews published evidence on associations between reproductive outcomes and occupational and environmental noise exposure. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched for papers published between 1970 to June 2014 and via colleagues. We included 14 epidemiological studies related to occupational noise exposure and nine epidemiological studies related to environmental noise exposure. There was some evidence for associations between occupational noise exposure and low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age, either independently or together with other occupational risk factors. Five of six epidemiologic studies, including the two largest studies, found significant associations between lower birthweight and higher noise exposure. There were few studies on other outcomes and study design issues may have led to bias in assessments in some studies. Conclusions: There is evidence for associations between noise exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes from animal studies. Few studies in have been conducted in humans but there is some suggestive evidence of adverse associations with environmental noise from both occupational and epidemiological studies, especially for low birthweight.
Keywords: noise; exposure assessment; birthweight; gestation length; spontaneous abortion; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ristovska, G.; Laszlo, H.E.; Hansell, A.L. Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7931-7952.

AMA Style

Ristovska G, Laszlo HE, Hansell AL. Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(8):7931-7952.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ristovska, Gordana; Laszlo, Helga E.; Hansell, Anna L. 2014. "Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 8: 7931-7952.

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