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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7592-7607; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807592

Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

1
Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
2
MJ Care, Milwaukee, WI 53227, USA
3
Department of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
4
Helping Hands Center for Special Needs, Columbus, OH 45056, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Health related Quality of Life)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [689 KB, uploaded 25 July 2014]

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.
Keywords: hearing level; otoacoustic emission; cardiovascular health; waist-to-hip ratio; body mass index hearing level; otoacoustic emission; cardiovascular health; waist-to-hip ratio; body mass index
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marron, K.H.; Sproat, B.; Ross, D.; Wagner, S.; Alessio, H. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7592-7607.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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