Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7592-7607; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807592
Article

Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

1,†,* email, 2,†email, 3email, 4email and 3,†email
Received: 18 June 2014; in revised form: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Health related Quality of Life)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.
Keywords: hearing level; otoacoustic emission; cardiovascular health; waist-to-hip ratio; body mass index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marron, K.H.; Sproat, B.; Ross, D.; Wagner, S.; Alessio, H. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7592-7607.

AMA Style

Marron KH, Sproat B, Ross D, Wagner S, Alessio H. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(8):7592-7607.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marron, Kathleen H.; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine. 2014. "Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 8: 7592-7607.


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