Next Article in Journal
Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Quantitation of Etheno-DNA Adducts in Human Urine
Next Article in Special Issue
Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Validity of a Judgment Skills Measure within the Concept of Health Literacy for Sleeping Disorder Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
What Personal and Environmental Factors Determine Frequency of Urban Greenspace Use?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10883-10901; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010883

Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting

Division of Human Environmental Science, Mt. Fuji Research Institute, 5597-1, Kami-Yoshida, Fuji-Yoshida City, Yamanashi 4030005, Japan
Department of Forest Management, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsuno-sato, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center, The University of Tokyo, Yamanaka 341-2, Yamanakako Village, Minami-tsuru, Yamanashi 4010501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Nature)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1787 KB, uploaded 20 October 2014]   |  


We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years) participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition) vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition). Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP) variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV) between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood pressure; cerebral oxygenation; mood states; visual stimulation; environmental planning blood pressure; cerebral oxygenation; mood states; visual stimulation; environmental planning

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Horiuchi, M.; Endo, J.; Takayama, N.; Murase, K.; Nishiyama, N.; Saito, H.; Fujiwara, A. Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10883-10901.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top