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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10902-10914; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010902

Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Quantitation of Etheno-DNA Adducts in Human Urine

1
Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
2
National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
3
Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan province, China
4
College of Public Health, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009, Hebei province, China
5
Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou 450016, Henan province, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
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Abstract

Etheno-DNA adducts are generated from the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. We and others have previously reported that 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) are present in human urine and can be utilized as biomarkers of oxidative stress. In this study, we report a new ultrasensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of εdA and edC in human urine, capable of detecting 0.5 fmol εdA and 0.3 fmol εdC in 1.0 mL of human urine, respectively. For validation of the method, 20 human urine samples were analyzed, and the results revealed that the mean levels of εdA and εdC (SD) fmol/µmol creatinine are 5.82 ± 2.11 (range 3.0–9.5) for εdA and 791.4 ± 328.8 (range 116.7–1264.9) for εdC in occupational benzene-exposed workers and 2.10 ± 1.32 (range 0.6–4.7) for εdA and 161.8 ± 200.9 (range 1.8–557.5) for εdC in non-benzene-exposed workers, respectively. The ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: UPLC-MS/MS; 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine; 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine; lipid peroxidation; human biomonitoring UPLC-MS/MS; 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine; 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine; lipid peroxidation; human biomonitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cui, S.; Li, H.; Wang, S.; Jiang, X.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, R.; Sun, X. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Quantitation of Etheno-DNA Adducts in Human Urine. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10902-10914.

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