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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4274-4305; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094274
Review

Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

1,†
, 2,3
, 1
 and 2,†,*
Received: 5 August 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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Abstract: Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; strategy; antibiotic prescribing; antimicrobial stewardship programs; education; hygiene; food animal; new antibiotics antibiotic resistance; strategy; antibiotic prescribing; antimicrobial stewardship programs; education; hygiene; food animal; new antibiotics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-R.; Cho, I.H.; Jeong, B.C.; Lee, S.H. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4274-4305.

AMA Style

Lee C-R, Cho IH, Jeong BC, Lee SH. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4274-4305.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill H.; Jeong, Byeong C.; Lee, Sang H. 2013. "Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4274-4305.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert