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Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview
Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti I-66013, Italy
Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2013; in revised form: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Abstract: Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. E. coli is the prominent cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis. E. coli is also prominently associated with diarrhoea in pet and farm animals. The therapeutic treatment of E. coli infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains is increasing worldwide principally due to the spread of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli also occurs in Europe. Therefore, the spread of resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern in European countries. This paper summarizes the current status of E. coli strains clinically relevant in European countries. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent and control infections are presented and discussed. The article also provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning promising alternative therapies against E. coli diseases.
Keywords: Escherichia coli; Gram-negative bacteria; pathotype; multidrug resistance; epidemiology; phage therapy; antimicrobial peptides; combination therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Allocati, N.; Masulli, M.; Alexeyev, M.F.; Di Ilio, C. Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6235-6254.
Allocati N, Masulli M, Alexeyev MF, Di Ilio C. Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6235-6254.
Allocati, Nerino; Masulli, Michele; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Di Ilio, Carmine. 2013. "Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6235-6254.