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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(4), 1505-1526; doi:10.3390/ijerph10041505
Article

Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

1,†,* , 2,†
, 3
 and 2
Received: 8 February 2013; in revised form: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract: Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods.
Keywords: mosquito; urban; vector; Aedes albopictus; Culex pipiens; income; IPM mosquito; urban; vector; Aedes albopictus; Culex pipiens; income; IPM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

LaDeau, S.L.; Leisnham, P.T.; Biehler, D.; Bodner, D. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1505-1526.

AMA Style

LaDeau SL, Leisnham PT, Biehler D, Bodner D. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1505-1526.

Chicago/Turabian Style

LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle. 2013. "Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1505-1526.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert