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Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
Faculty of Environmental and Information Science, Yokkaichi University, 1200 Kayouchyou, Yokkaichi, Mie 512-8512, Japan
Department of Public Health and Occupational Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, LiaoNing 116044, China
Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8615, Japan
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2013; in revised form: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Abstract: This study assessed subjective symptoms related to indoor concentrations of chemicals among residents in a housing estate in Dalian, China, where indoor air pollution by interior decoration materials has recently become a major health problem. Fifty-nine males and 50 females were surveyed for their symptoms related to sick building syndrome. Formaldehyde (HCHO), NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their dwellings were collected using a diffusion sampler and measured by GC/MS. For residents with one or more symptoms in the past, HCHO, butanol or 1,2-dichloroethane concentrations were significantly greater in their bedrooms or kitchens compared with those of subjects without previous symptoms. For residents with one or more symptoms at the time of the study, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylene, butanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, and styrene concentrations in their bedrooms or kitchens were significantly greater compared with those of residents without symptoms. HCHO, NO2, and VOCs were detected in all rooms, but their levels were lower than the guideline values except for HCHO in two rooms. Chemical substances from interior decoration materials at indoor air levels lower than their guideline values might have affected the health status of residents.
Keywords: sick building syndrome; indoor air pollution; China; formaldehyde; volatile organic compound
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MDPI and ACS Style
Guo, P.; Yokoyama, K.; Piao, F.; Sakai, K.; Khalequzzaman, M.; Kamijima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kitamura, F. Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1489-1504.
Guo P, Yokoyama K, Piao F, Sakai K, Khalequzzaman M, Kamijima M, Nakajima T, Kitamura F. Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1489-1504.
Guo, Peng; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Piao, Fengyuan; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Khalequzzaman, Md; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Kitamura, Fumihiko. 2013. "Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1489-1504.