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Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, via Moruzzi 1, Pisa 56124, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Abstract: The arsenic (As) exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects.
Keywords: arsenic; biomarkers; genotoxicity; genetic polymorphisms
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MDPI and ACS Style
Faita, F.; Cori, L.; Bianchi, F.; Andreassi, M.G. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1527-1546.
Faita F, Cori L, Bianchi F, Andreassi MG. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1527-1546.
Faita, Francesca; Cori, Liliana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Andreassi, Maria G. 2013. "Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 4: 1527-1546.