Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(3), 994-1005; doi:10.3390/ijerph10030994
Article

Fate and Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Seasonally Snow Covered Watersheds: A Conceptual Framework from a Melting Snowpack to the Canadian Arctic Coasts

1,* , 1
, 2
 and 1,3
Received: 25 January 2013; in revised form: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [333 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan that causes serious illness in humans and infects animals worldwide, including the Canadian Arctic. Indeed, high prevalence of infection amongst Inuit has been recorded, possibly due to consumption of raw infected seal meat. Here we explore the hypothesis that T. gondii oocysts contaminate the coastal marine environment via surface runoff from across the boreal watershed, particularly during the snowmelt period. We propose a conceptual framework of the different processes governing the fate and transport of T. gondii oocysts from the melting snowpack to the Canadian arctic coast via the freshwater runoff. This framework identifies the feasibility of a transmission pathway of oocysts from contaminated soil to the marine environment, but also the complexity and multiplicity of mechanisms involved. In addition, the framework identifies knowledge gaps for guiding future studies on T. gondii oocysts. Furthermore, this work could be used as a tool to investigate the possible estuarine contamination by other faeces-borne pathogens transported via the spring freshet in seasonally snow covered watersheds.
Keywords: estuary; faeces-borne pathogen; hydrological transport; large-scale dispersion; snowmelt runoff; Toxoplasma gondii; waterborne contamination estuary; faeces-borne pathogen; hydrological transport; large-scale dispersion; snowmelt runoff; Toxoplasma gondii; waterborne contamination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Simon, A.; Poulin, M.B.; Rousseau, A.N.; Ogden, N.H. Fate and Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Seasonally Snow Covered Watersheds: A Conceptual Framework from a Melting Snowpack to the Canadian Arctic Coasts. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 994-1005.

AMA Style

Simon A, Poulin MB, Rousseau AN, Ogden NH. Fate and Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Seasonally Snow Covered Watersheds: A Conceptual Framework from a Melting Snowpack to the Canadian Arctic Coasts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):994-1005.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Simon, Audrey; Poulin, Michel B.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Ogden, Nicholas H. 2013. "Fate and Transport of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Seasonally Snow Covered Watersheds: A Conceptual Framework from a Melting Snowpack to the Canadian Arctic Coasts." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 994-1005.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert