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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(3), 936-949; doi:10.3390/ijerph10030936
Article

Coarse and Fine Culturable Fungal Air Concentrations in Urban and Rural Homes in Egypt

1,2
, 3,* , 4
 and 5
Received: 21 January 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract: The main objective of the present study was to assess culturable airborne fungal concentrations, and types in different seasons. Two-stage viable impactor samplers were used with malt extract agar medium as the collection media. Culturable airborne fungal concentrations were collected indoors and outdoors of 43 homes in urban and rural environments from November 2008 to October 2009 in Egypt. Fungal concentrations were significantly higher in the rural environment than the urban environment. The median indoor and outdoor total fungal concentrations were 608 and 675 CFU/m3 in the urban environment and 1,932 and 1,872 CFU/m3 in the rural environment, respectively. The greatest concentrations were found in the autumn and spring season. Indoor and outdoor concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). The highest concentrations were observed in the fungal size range of <8 µm (fine fraction). The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were not statistically different between seasons. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and yeasts were the predominant genera indoors and outdoors, and the abundance of genera varied by season and region. This study is of a potential interest as little reported research on the indoor fungal air quality from Egypt.
Keywords: air; fungi; homes; rural; urban air; fungi; homes; rural; urban
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Awad, A.H.A.; Gibbs, S.G.; Tarwater, P.M.; Green, C.F. Coarse and Fine Culturable Fungal Air Concentrations in Urban and Rural Homes in Egypt. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 936-949.

AMA Style

Awad AHA, Gibbs SG, Tarwater PM, Green CF. Coarse and Fine Culturable Fungal Air Concentrations in Urban and Rural Homes in Egypt. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):936-949.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Awad, Abdel H.A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Green, Christopher F. 2013. "Coarse and Fine Culturable Fungal Air Concentrations in Urban and Rural Homes in Egypt." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 936-949.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert