Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(3), 980-993; doi:10.3390/ijerph10030980
Article

Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

1 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Research and Informatics, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Toyama 1-21-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan 2 Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 3 Department of Public Health, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara 252-0373, Japan 4 Department of Health Economics and Epidemiology Research, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 5 Department of Mental Health, Tokyo University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 6 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Nagao 6-21-1, Tama-Ku, Kawasaki 214-8585, Japan 7 Department of Mental Health, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan 8 Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2012; in revised form: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
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Abstract: The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = −0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = −0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
Keywords: socioeconomic status; salt intake; blood pressure; hypertension

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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyaki, K.; Song, Y.; Taneichi, S.; Tsutsumi, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawakami, N.; Takahashi, M.; Shimazu, A.; Inoue, A.; Kurioka, S.; Shimbo, T. Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 980-993.

AMA Style

Miyaki K, Song Y, Taneichi S, Tsutsumi A, Hashimoto H, Kawakami N, Takahashi M, Shimazu A, Inoue A, Kurioka S, Shimbo T. Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):980-993.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro. 2013. "Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 980-993.

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