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Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production
Environment Canada, Pacific Environment Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1, Canada
Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Russell Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2013; in revised form: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Abstract: Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.
Keywords: Enterococci; antimicrobial; resistance; poultry litter; ground water; surface water; contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style
Furtula, V.; Jackson, C.R.; Farrell, E.G.; Barrett, J.B.; Hiott, L.M.; Chambers, P.A. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1020-1036.
Furtula V, Jackson CR, Farrell EG, Barrett JB, Hiott LM, Chambers PA. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):1020-1036.
Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin G.; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A. 2013. "Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 1020-1036.