Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 5399-5432; doi:10.3390/ijerph10115399
Review

Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature

1,* email, 2,†email and 1,†email
1 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA 2 Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Tromso 9007, Norway These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2013; in revised form: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: Over the last two decades West Nile Virus (WNV) has been responsible for significant disease outbreaks in humans and animals in many parts of the World. Its extremely rapid global diffusion argues for a better understanding of its geographic extent. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore spatio-temporal patterns of WNV using geospatial technologies to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts, in addition to the spatio-temporal interactions among these populations. Review of the recent literature on spatial WNV disease risk modeling led to the conclusion that numerous environmental factors might be critical for its dissemination. New Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based studies are monitoring occurrence at the macro-level, and helping pinpoint areas of occurrence at the micro-level, where geographically-targeted, species-specific control measures are sometimes taken and more sophisticated methods of surveillance have been used.
Keywords: West Nile Virus; geographic distribution; risk modeling

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ozdenerol, E.; Taff, G.N.; Akkus, C. Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5399-5432.

AMA Style

Ozdenerol E, Taff GN, Akkus C. Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):5399-5432.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozdenerol, Esra; Taff, Gregory N.; Akkus, Cem. 2013. "Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 5399-5432.

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