Next Article in Journal
Design-with-Nature for Multifunctional Landscapes: Environmental Benefits and Social Barriers in Community Development
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota
Previous Article in Journal
Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 5399-5432; doi:10.3390/ijerph10115399

Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature

1
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
2
Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Tromso 9007, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 23 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [481 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Over the last two decades West Nile Virus (WNV) has been responsible for significant disease outbreaks in humans and animals in many parts of the World. Its extremely rapid global diffusion argues for a better understanding of its geographic extent. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore spatio-temporal patterns of WNV using geospatial technologies to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors, and human hosts, in addition to the spatio-temporal interactions among these populations. Review of the recent literature on spatial WNV disease risk modeling led to the conclusion that numerous environmental factors might be critical for its dissemination. New Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based studies are monitoring occurrence at the macro-level, and helping pinpoint areas of occurrence at the micro-level, where geographically-targeted, species-specific control measures are sometimes taken and more sophisticated methods of surveillance have been used. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile Virus; geographic distribution; risk modeling West Nile Virus; geographic distribution; risk modeling
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ozdenerol, E.; Taff, G.N.; Akkus, C. Exploring the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Reservoir Hosts, Vectors, and Human Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Review of the Recent Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5399-5432.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top