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Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
School of Public Health, Divisions of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
John A. Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt lake City, UT 84132, USA
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
World Health Organization, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland
National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2013; in revised form: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 19 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Abstract: In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted.
Keywords: biomass; blindness; cataract; trachoma; dry eye disease; household air pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style
West, S.K.; Bates, M.N.; Lee, J.S.; Schaumberg, D.A.; Lee, D.J.; Adair-Rohani, H.; Chen, D.F.; Araj, H. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5378-5398.
West SK, Bates MN, Lee JS, Schaumberg DA, Lee DJ, Adair-Rohani H, Chen DF, Araj H. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):5378-5398.
West, Sheila K.; Bates, Michael N.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Lee, David J.; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Chen, Dong F.; Araj, Houmam. 2013. "Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 5378-5398.