Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 5111-5129; doi:10.3390/ijerph10105111
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Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

Department of Pathology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Diseases, Center for Tropical Diseases, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA Present address: Chronic Viral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2013; in revised form: 5 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.
Keywords: West Nile virus; molecular epidemiology; evolution; phylogenetics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mann, B.R.; McMullen, A.R.; Swetnam, D.M.; Barrett, A.D.T. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5111-5129.

AMA Style

Mann BR, McMullen AR, Swetnam DM, Barrett ADT. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):5111-5129.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Barrett, Alan D.T. 2013. "Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 5111-5129.

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