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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6117-6137; doi:10.3390/md13106117

Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

1
Postgraduate program in Health Sciences, Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, R. Galvao Bueno, 868, Building B, 13th floor, Sao Paulo SP 01506000, Brazil
2
Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
3
Department of Psychobiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo SP 04023062, Brazil
4
Department of Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University (UNIP), Sao Paulo SP 04026002, Brazil
5
Program in Veterinary Medicine, Biological Sciences and Health (CBS), Cruzeiro do Sul University, Sao Paulo SP 01506-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Perry
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Their Application in Neurological Disorders)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [907 KB, uploaded 28 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: DHA; EPA; carotenoid; antioxidant; hormesis; brain; aging; Alzheimer; Parkinson; senescence DHA; EPA; carotenoid; antioxidant; hormesis; brain; aging; Alzheimer; Parkinson; senescence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polotow, T.G.; Poppe, S.C.; Vardaris, C.V.; Ganini, D.; Guariroba, M.; Mattei, R.; Hatanaka, E.; Martins, M.F.; Bondan, E.F.; Barros, M.P. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6117-6137.

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