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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 838-860; doi:10.3390/md13020838

Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats

1
Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
2
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco 4811230, Chile
3
Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Constantina Nasopoulou
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 13 January 2015 / Accepted: 16 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract

Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3) induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of IH and Ω3 on cardiac function; oxidative balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: normobaric normoxia (N); N + Ω3 (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1); IH; and IH + Ω3. IH was induced by 4 intercalate periods of hypoxia (4 days)—normoxia (4 days) in a hypobaric chamber during 32 days. At the end of the exposure, hearts were mounted in a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In addition, we determined HIF-1α and ATP levels, as well as oxidative stress by malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine quantification. Further, the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was determined. NF-kappaB and myeloperoxidase levels were assessed in the hearts. Relative to N hearts, IH improved left ventricular function (Left ventricular developed pressure: N; 21.8 ± 3.4 vs. IH; 42.8 ± 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.05); reduced oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde: N; 14.4 ± 1.8 vs. IH; 7.3 ± 2.1 μmol/mg prot.; p < 0.05); and increased antioxidant enzymes expression. Supplementation with Ω3 induces similar responses as IH group. Our findings suggest that both, IH and Ω3 in an independent manner, induce functional improvement by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, establishing cardio-protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent hypobaric hypoxia; high-altitude; oxidative stress; inflammation; ventricular function; cardiac impairment; ischemia-reperfusion; Ω3 fatty acids intermittent hypobaric hypoxia; high-altitude; oxidative stress; inflammation; ventricular function; cardiac impairment; ischemia-reperfusion; Ω3 fatty acids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera, E.A.; Farías, J.G.; González-Candia, A.; Short, S.E.; Carrasco-Pozo, C.; Castillo, R.L. Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 838-860.

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