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Special Issue "Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Constantina Nasopoulou

Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Metropolite Ioakeim 2, 81400 Myrina, Lemnos, Greece
E-Mail
Phone: +30 22540 83100
Interests: marine functional food products; food biotechnology; antithrombotic; antiatherogenic properties of marine bioactive lipid micro constituents; inflammation; biological assays; gas chromatrograpy-mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last three decades, the relationship between fish, fish oil consumption, and low mortality following cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been the subject of study. More recently, other marine lipid sources, such as krill oil (the most abundant biomass on earth due to its reproductive capabilities), have been found to exert anti-inflammatory activity and thus anti-atherosclerotic activity; inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Also, the results of human studies concerning the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are controversial; studies vary from finding no effect to beneficial effects. Further, it has been reported that the aforementioned cardio-protective properties of marine lipids can be attributed to biologically active lipid micro-constituents that exert antithrombotic action. Because CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide, it is essential to develop marine functional foods and neutraceuticals that focus on preventing these chronic diseases.
This Special Issue covers all new trends in formulating marine functional food products with reinforced cardio-protective properties.

Dr. Constantina Nasopoulou
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • fish
  • fish oil
  • krill oil
  • inflammation
  • biologically active lipid micro-constituents
  • ω-3 fatty acids
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • Marine functional food products
  • neutraceuticals

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 1071-1083; doi:10.3390/md13021071
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ˂ 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 996-1009; doi:10.3390/md13020996
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 27 January 2015 / Accepted: 6 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that
[...] Read more.
Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 838-860; doi:10.3390/md13020838
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 13 January 2015 / Accepted: 16 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3) induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the
[...] Read more.
Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3) induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of IH and Ω3 on cardiac function; oxidative balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: normobaric normoxia (N); N + Ω3 (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1); IH; and IH + Ω3. IH was induced by 4 intercalate periods of hypoxia (4 days)—normoxia (4 days) in a hypobaric chamber during 32 days. At the end of the exposure, hearts were mounted in a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In addition, we determined HIF-1α and ATP levels, as well as oxidative stress by malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine quantification. Further, the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was determined. NF-kappaB and myeloperoxidase levels were assessed in the hearts. Relative to N hearts, IH improved left ventricular function (Left ventricular developed pressure: N; 21.8 ± 3.4 vs. IH; 42.8 ± 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.05); reduced oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde: N; 14.4 ± 1.8 vs. IH; 7.3 ± 2.1 μmol/mg prot.; p < 0.05); and increased antioxidant enzymes expression. Supplementation with Ω3 induces similar responses as IH group. Our findings suggest that both, IH and Ω3 in an independent manner, induce functional improvement by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, establishing cardio-protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 788-805; doi:10.3390/md13020788
Received: 2 October 2014 / Revised: 22 December 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar
[...] Read more.
Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Vitamin D Activation in Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Study
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 741-755; doi:10.3390/md13020741
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The high incidence of cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease patients is well known. Vitamin D activation by omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation may explain the cardioprotective effects exerted by omega-3 FA. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA and 25-hydroxyvitamin
[...] Read more.
The high incidence of cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease patients is well known. Vitamin D activation by omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation may explain the cardioprotective effects exerted by omega-3 FA. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) supplementation may increase 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels compared to 25(OH)D supplementation alone in hemodialysis (HD) patients that have insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. We enrolled patients that were treated for at least six months with 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL (NCT01596842). Patients were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with cholecalciferol supplemented with omega-3 FA or a placebo. Levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane FA contents were also measured. Levels of 25(OH)D were increased in both groups at 12 weeks compared to baseline. The 1,25(OH)2D levels at 12 weeks compared to baseline showed a tendency to increase in the omega-3 FA group. The oleic acid and monounsaturated FA content decreased, while the omega-3 index increased in the omega-3 FA group. Omega-3 FA supplementation may be partly associated with vitamin D activation, although increased 25(OH)D levels caused by short-term cholecalciferol supplementation were not associated with vitamin D activation in HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(12), 5944-5959; doi:10.3390/md12125944
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gamma tocopherol (gT) exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in
[...] Read more.
Gamma tocopherol (gT) exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Resolvin D1, a Metabolite of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Decreases Post-Myocardial Infarct Depression
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(11), 5396-5407; doi:10.3390/md12115396
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We hypothesized that inflammation induced by myocardial ischemia plays a central role in depression-like behavior after myocardial infarction (MI). Several experimental approaches that reduce inflammation also result in attenuation of depressive symptoms. We have demonstrated that Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of omega-3
[...] Read more.
We hypothesized that inflammation induced by myocardial ischemia plays a central role in depression-like behavior after myocardial infarction (MI). Several experimental approaches that reduce inflammation also result in attenuation of depressive symptoms. We have demonstrated that Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from docosahexaenoic acid, diminishes infarct size and neutrophil accumulation in the ischemic myocardium. The aim of this study is to determine if a single RvD1 injection could alleviate depressive symptoms in a rat model of MI. MI was induced in rats by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min. Five minutes before ischemia or after reperfusion, 0.1 μg of RvD1 or vehicle was injected in the left ventricle cavity. Fourteen days after MI, behavioral tests (forced swim test and socialization) were conducted to evaluate depression-like symptoms. RvD1 reduced infarct size in the treated vs. the vehicle group. Animals receiving RvD1 also showed better performance in the forced swim and social interaction tests vs. vehicle controls. These results indicate that a single RvD1 dose, given 5 min before occlusion or 5 min after the onset of reperfusion, decreases infarct size and attenuates depression-like symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Impact of DHA on Metabolic Diseases from Womb to Tomb
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(12), 6190-6212; doi:10.3390/md12126190
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important mediators in improving and maintaining human health over the total lifespan. One topic we especially focus on in this review is omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Adequate DHA levels are essential during neurodevelopment and, in
[...] Read more.
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important mediators in improving and maintaining human health over the total lifespan. One topic we especially focus on in this review is omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Adequate DHA levels are essential during neurodevelopment and, in addition, beneficial in cognitive processes throughout life. We review the impact of DHA on societal relevant metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). All of these are risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia in later life. DHA supplementation is associated with a reduced incidence of both stroke and atherosclerosis, lower bodyweight and decreased T2DM prevalence. These findings are discussed in the light of different stages in the human life cycle: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and in later life. From this review, it can be concluded that DHA supplementation is able to inhibit pathologies like obesity and cardiovascular disease. DHA could be a dietary protector against these metabolic diseases during a person’s entire lifespan. However, supplementation of DHA in combination with other dietary factors is also effective. The efficacy of DHA depends on its dose as well as on the duration of supplementation, sex, and age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Nano- and Microdelivery Systems for Marine Bioactive Lipids
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(12), 6014-6027; doi:10.3390/md12126014
Received: 11 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an increasing body of evidence of the positive impact of several marine lipids on human health. These compounds, which include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to improve blood lipid profiles and exert anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. The high instability
[...] Read more.
There is an increasing body of evidence of the positive impact of several marine lipids on human health. These compounds, which include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to improve blood lipid profiles and exert anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. The high instability of these compounds to oxidative deterioration and their hydrophobicity have a drastic impact in their pharmacokinetics. Thus, the bioavailability of these compounds may be affected, resulting in their inability to reach the target sites at effective concentrations. In this regard, micro/nanoparticles can offer a wide range of solutions that can prevent the degradation of targeted molecules, increase their absorption, uptake and bioavailability. In this work we will present the options currently available concerning micro- and nanodelivery systems for marine lipids; with emphasis on micro/nanoparticles; such as micro/nanocapsules and emulsions. A wide range of bottom-up approaches using casein, chitosan, cyclodextrins, among others; will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)

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