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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 996-1009; doi:10.3390/md13020996

Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, 90144 Palermo, Italy
3
Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens 15773, Greece
4
Department of Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
5
TEAMHealth, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
6
Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Constantina Nasopoulou
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 27 January 2015 / Accepted: 6 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food Products - Cardiovascular Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [387 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory cytokines; ketogenic diet; weight loss; cardiovascular risk factors; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega-3 inflammatory cytokines; ketogenic diet; weight loss; cardiovascular risk factors; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega-3
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paoli, A.; Moro, T.; Bosco, G.; Bianco, A.; Grimaldi, K.A.; Camporesi, E.; Mangar, D. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 996-1009.

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