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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7055-7066; doi:10.3390/md13127056

Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

1
Anti-aging Research Institute of BIO-FD & C Co. Ltd., Incheon 406-840, Korea
2
Departments of Pharmacology and Global Medical Science, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-701, Korea
3
Institute of Lifestyle Medicine and Nuclear Receptor Research Consortium, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-701, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 20 August 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Abstract

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); wound healing; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases; extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); wound healing; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases; extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.-H.; Yang, D.J.; Kulkarni, A.; Moh, S.H.; Kim, K.W. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7055-7066.

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