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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2485-2514; doi:10.3390/md12052485
Review

Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

 and *
Received: 7 December 2013; in revised form: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
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Abstract: Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted.
Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria; immune system; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; marine organisms; TLR4 Gram-negative bacteria; immune system; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; marine organisms; TLR4
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Anwar, M.A.; Choi, S. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2485-2514.

AMA Style

Anwar MA, Choi S. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(5):2485-2514.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anwar, Muhammad A.; Choi, Sangdun. 2014. "Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 5: 2485-2514.



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