Next Article in Journal
Four New Jacaranone Analogs from the Fruits of a Beibu Gulf Mangrove Avicennia marina
Next Article in Special Issue
Recognition of LPS by TLR4: Potential for Anti-Inflammatory Therapies
Previous Article in Journal
Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Effects of Diterpenes Isolated from the Marine Alga, Dictyota menstrualis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vibrio vulnificus MO6-24/O Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Superoxide Anion, Thromboxane B2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokine and Chemokine Release by Rat Brain Microglia in Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2485-2514; doi:10.3390/md12052485
Review

Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

 and *
Received: 7 December 2013; in revised form: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1065 KB, uploaded 30 April 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted.
Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria; immune system; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; marine organisms; TLR4 Gram-negative bacteria; immune system; lipid A; lipopolysaccharide; marine organisms; TLR4
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Anwar, M.A.; Choi, S. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2485-2514.

AMA Style

Anwar MA, Choi S. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(5):2485-2514.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anwar, Muhammad A.; Choi, Sangdun. 2014. "Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 5: 2485-2514.


Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert