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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(11), 5425-5440; doi:10.3390/md12115425

Polyketide Synthases in the Microbiome of the Marine Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides: A Metagenomic Update

The NeaNat Group, Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
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Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Abstract

Sponge-associated microorganisms are able to assemble the complex machinery for the production of secondary metabolites such as polyketides, the most important class of marine natural products from a drug discovery perspective. A comprehensive overview of polyketide biosynthetic genes of the sponge Plakortis halichondrioides and its symbionts was obtained in the present study by massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of complex and heterogeneous PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) products amplified from the metagenomic DNA of a specimen of P. halichondrioides collected in the Caribbean Sea. This was accompanied by a survey of the bacterial diversity within the sponge. In line with previous studies, sequences belonging to supA and swfA, two widespread sponge-specific groups of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes were dominant. While they have been previously reported as belonging to Poribacteria (a novel bacterial phylum found exclusively in sponges), re-examination of current genomic sequencing data showed supA and swfA not to be present in the poribacterial genome. Several non-supA, non-swfA type-I PKS fragments were also identified. A significant portion of these fragments resembled type-I PKSs from protists, suggesting that bacteria may not be the only source of polyketides from P. halichondrioides, and that protistan PKSs should receive further investigation as a source of novel polyketides. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine sponges; metagenome; microbiome; PKS; polyketide synthases; Poribacteria; Porifera; protists; SupA; SwfA marine sponges; metagenome; microbiome; PKS; polyketide synthases; Poribacteria; Porifera; protists; SupA; SwfA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Della Sala, G.; Hochmuth, T.; Teta, R.; Costantino, V.; Mangoni, A. Polyketide Synthases in the Microbiome of the Marine Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides: A Metagenomic Update. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 5425-5440.

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