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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(11), 5441-5467; doi:10.3390/md12115441

Beta-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon

1
Ifremer (French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Seas), Phycotoxins Laboratory, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France
2
Ifremer (French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Seas), Laboratoire Environnement Ressources du Languedoc Roussillon (LER-LR) F-34203 Sète, France
3
UMR Eco-Bio-Université de Rennes I, F-35042 Rennes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
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Abstract

β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. It was reported to be produced by cyanobacteria, but also found in edible aquatic organisms, thus raising concern of a widespread human exposure. However, the chemical analysis of BMAA and its isomers are controversial, mainly due to the lack of selectivity of the analytical methods. Using factorial design, we have optimized the chromatographic separation of underivatized analogues by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. A combination of an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, appropriate chromatographic resolution and the use of specific mass spectral transitions allowed for the development of a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure to identify and quantify BMAA and its isomers (in both free and total form) in cyanobacteria and mollusk matrices (LOQ of 0.225 and 0.15 µg/g dry weight, respectively). Ten species of cyanobacteria (six are reported to be BMAA producers) were screened with this method, and neither free nor bound BMAA could be found, while both free and bound DAB were present in almost all samples. Mussels and oysters collected in 2009 in the Thau Lagoon, France, were also screened, and bound BMAA and its two isomers, DAB and AEG, were observed in all samples (from 0.6 to 14.4 µg/g DW), while only several samples contained quantifiable free BMAA. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxins; BMAA; DAB; AEG; HILIC-MS/MS; cyanobacteria; bivalve mollusks; French Mediterranean cyanotoxins; BMAA; DAB; AEG; HILIC-MS/MS; cyanobacteria; bivalve mollusks; French Mediterranean
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Réveillon, D.; Abadie, E.; Séchet, V.; Brient, L.; Savar, V.; Bardouil, M.; Hess, P.; Amzil, Z. Beta-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 5441-5467.

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