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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3582-3600; doi:10.3390/md11103582
Article

Chitosan Nanoparticles Attenuate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress Injury in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

1,* , 1
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1
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1
 and
2,*
1 Zhejiang Provincial Key Engineering Technology Research Center of Marine Biomedical Products, Food and Pharmacy College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316000, China 2 Key Laboratory for Molecular Animal Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Feed Science Institute, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells. After 24 h pre-incubation with CNP (25–200 μg/mL) and chitosan (CS) (50–200 μg/mL, as controls), the viability loss in RAW264.7 cells induced by H2O2 (500 μM) for 12 h was markedly restored in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay (P < 0.05) and decreased in cellular LDH release (P < 0.05). Moreover, CNP also exerted preventive effects on suppressing the production of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), restoring activities of endogenous antioxidant including superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P < 0.05), along with increasing total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-incubation of CNP with RAW264.7 cells for 24 h resulted in the increase of the gene expression level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as MnSOD and GSH-Px (P < 0.05). At the same concentration, CNP significantly decreased LDH release and MDA (P < 0.05) as well as increased MnSOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities (P < 0.05) as compared to CS. Taken together, our findings suggest that CNP can more effectively protect RAW264.7 cells against oxidative stress by H2O2 as compared to CS, which might be used as a potential natural compound-based antioxidant in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; stress injury; RAW264.7 cells chitosan nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; stress injury; RAW264.7 cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wen, Z.-S.; Liu, L.-J.; Qu, Y.-L.; OuYang, X.-K.; Yang, L.-Y.; Xu, Z.-R. Chitosan Nanoparticles Attenuate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress Injury in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3582-3600.

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