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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3582-3600; doi:10.3390/md11103582

Chitosan Nanoparticles Attenuate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress Injury in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

1,* , 1
1 Zhejiang Provincial Key Engineering Technology Research Center of Marine Biomedical Products, Food and Pharmacy College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316000, China 2 Key Laboratory for Molecular Animal Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Feed Science Institute, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells. After 24 h pre-incubation with CNP (25–200 μg/mL) and chitosan (CS) (50–200 μg/mL, as controls), the viability loss in RAW264.7 cells induced by H2O2 (500 μM) for 12 h was markedly restored in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay (P < 0.05) and decreased in cellular LDH release (P < 0.05). Moreover, CNP also exerted preventive effects on suppressing the production of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), restoring activities of endogenous antioxidant including superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P < 0.05), along with increasing total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-incubation of CNP with RAW264.7 cells for 24 h resulted in the increase of the gene expression level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as MnSOD and GSH-Px (P < 0.05). At the same concentration, CNP significantly decreased LDH release and MDA (P < 0.05) as well as increased MnSOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities (P < 0.05) as compared to CS. Taken together, our findings suggest that CNP can more effectively protect RAW264.7 cells against oxidative stress by H2O2 as compared to CS, which might be used as a potential natural compound-based antioxidant in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; stress injury; RAW264.7 cells chitosan nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; stress injury; RAW264.7 cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wen, Z.-S.; Liu, L.-J.; Qu, Y.-L.; OuYang, X.-K.; Yang, L.-Y.; Xu, Z.-R. Chitosan Nanoparticles Attenuate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress Injury in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3582-3600.

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