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Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Lipičeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt, Germany
Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, 60596 Frankfurt, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2013; in revised form: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Abstract: We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling.
Keywords: Antarctic marine sponges; hemolysis; antibacterial activity; acetylcholinesterase inhibition; cytotoxicity
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Turk, T.; Avguštin, J.A.; Batista, U.; Strugar, G.; Kosmina, R.; Čivović, S.; Janussen, D.; Kauferstein, S.; Mebs, D.; Sepčić, K. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1126-1139.
Turk T, Avguštin JA, Batista U, Strugar G, Kosmina R, Čivović S, Janussen D, Kauferstein S, Mebs D, Sepčić K. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(4):1126-1139.
Turk, Tom; Avguštin, Jerneja A.; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina. 2013. "Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 4: 1126-1139.