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Diamond Squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Stimulates Bone Healing within a Rat Calvarial Defect
Veterinary Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
Laboratory of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
Department of Regional Environment, Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8551, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2013; in revised form: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Abstract: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been suggested to be involved in bone formation and mineralization processes. A previous study showed that squid-derived CS (sqCS) has osteoblastogenesis ability in cooperation with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 in vitro. However, in vivo, osteogenic potential has not been verified. In this study, we created a critical-sized bone defect in the rat calvaria and implanted sqCS-loaded gelatin hydrogel sponges (Gel) into the defect with or without BMP-4 (CS/BMP/Gel and CS/Gel, respectively). At 15 weeks, bone repair rate of CS/Gel-treated defects and CS/BMP/Gel-treated defects were 47.2% and 51.1%, respectively, whereas empty defects and defects with untreated sponges showed significantly less bone ingrowth. The intensity of von Kossa staining of the regenerated bone was less than that of the original one. Mineral apposition rates at 9 to 10 weeks were not significantly different between all treatment groups. Although bone repair was not completed, sqCS stimulated bone regeneration without BMP-4 and without external mesenchymal cells or preosteoblasts. Therefore, sqCS is a promising substance for promotion of osteogenesis.
Keywords: bone healing; chondroitin sulfate; diamond squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus); regenerative medicine; BMP-4
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hosaka, Y.Z.; Iwai, Y.; Tamura, J.-I.; Uehara, M. Diamond Squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Stimulates Bone Healing within a Rat Calvarial Defect. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 5024-5035.
Hosaka YZ, Iwai Y, Tamura J-I, Uehara M. Diamond Squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Stimulates Bone Healing within a Rat Calvarial Defect. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(12):5024-5035.
Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Iwai, Yuji; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Uehara, Masato. 2013. "Diamond Squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Stimulates Bone Healing within a Rat Calvarial Defect." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 12: 5024-5035.