Next Article in Journal
Eight New Peptaibols from Sponge-Associated Trichoderma atroviride
Next Article in Special Issue
Diamond Squid (Thysanoteuthis rhombus)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Stimulates Bone Healing within a Rat Calvarial Defect
Previous Article in Journal
N-Terminal Protease Gene Phylogeny Reveals the Potential for Novel Cyanobactin Diversity in Cyanobacteria
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oxygenated Ylangene-Derived Sesquiterpenoids from the Soft Coral Lemnalia philippinensis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4917-4936; doi:10.3390/md11124917

Cytotoxic, Cytostatic and HIV-1 PR Inhibitory Activities of the Soft Coral Litophyton arboreum

1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
2
Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
3
Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Belleville 7535, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1308 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Bioassay-guided fractionation using different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques in the analysis of the Red Sea soft coral Litophyton arboreum led to the isolation of nine compounds; sarcophytol M (1), alismol (2), 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-diene-3β-ol (3), 10-O-methyl alismoxide (4), alismoxide (5), (S)-chimyl alcohol (6), 7β-acetoxy-24-methylcholesta-5-24(28)-diene-3,19-diol (7), erythro-N-dodecanoyl-docosasphinga-(4E,8E)-dienine (8), and 24-methylcholesta-5,24 (28)-diene-3β,7β,19-triol (9). Some of the isolated compounds demonstrated potent cytotoxic- and/or cytostatic activity against HeLa and U937 cancer cell lines and inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease (PR). Compound 7 was strongly cytotoxic against HeLa cells (CC50 4.3 ± 0.75 µM), with selectivity index of SI 8.1, which was confirmed by real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). Compounds 2, 7, and 8 showed strong inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR at IC50s of 7.20 ± 0.7, 4.85 ± 0.18, and 4.80 ± 0.92 µM respectively. In silico docking of most compounds presented comparable scores to that of acetyl pepstatin, a known HIV-1 PR inhibitor. Interestingly, compound 8 showed potent HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity in the absence of cytotoxicity against the cell lines used. In addition, compounds 2 and 5 demonstrated cytostatic action in HeLa cells, revealing potential use in virostatic cocktails. Taken together, data presented here suggest Litophyton arboreum to contain promising compounds for further investigation against the diseases mentioned. View Full-Text
Keywords: red sea; Litophyton arboreum; HIV-1 protease; HIV-1 reverse transcriptase; cytotoxicity; real time cell analysis red sea; Litophyton arboreum; HIV-1 protease; HIV-1 reverse transcriptase; cytotoxicity; real time cell analysis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ellithey, M.S.; Lall, N.; Hussein, A.A.; Meyer, D. Cytotoxic, Cytostatic and HIV-1 PR Inhibitory Activities of the Soft Coral Litophyton arboreum. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4917-4936.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top