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Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State
NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Laboratory, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112, USA
Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe, 1033 Old Blyn Highway, Sequim, WA 98392, USA
Food Safety and Shellfish Program, Washington State Department of Health, 7171 Clearwater Lane, Olympia, WA 98504, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 August 2013; in revised form: 7 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Abstract: The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.
Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs); okadaic acid; rapid screening test; LC-MS/MS; protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Jellett rapid test; Puget Sound
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Eberhart, B.-T.L.; Moore, L.K.; Harrington, N.; Adams, N.G.; Borchert, J.; Trainer, V.L. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3718-3734.
Eberhart B-TL, Moore LK, Harrington N, Adams NG, Borchert J, Trainer VL. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(10):3718-3734.
Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L. 2013. "Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 10: 3718-3734.