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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3823-3845; doi:10.3390/md11103823
Article

Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish

1,†
,
2
,
1
,
3
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO), Oceanographic Centre of Vigo, Subida a Radio Faro 50, Vigo 36390, Spain 2 Technological Institute for the Control of the Marine Environment of Galicia (INTECMAR), Peirao de Vilaxoán s/n, Vilagarcía de Arousa, Pontevedra 36611, Spain 3 Institute of Marine Research (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, Vigo 36080, Spain Permanent address: Fisheries Institute (IFOP) and Centre for the Study of the Quaternary, Enrique Abell 0552, Punta Arenas 6200000, Chile.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
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Abstract

From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week−1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks.
Keywords: Dinophysis; early warning DSP outbreaks; HAB monitoring; modeling toxin accumulation; Solid Phase Adsorbing Toxin Tracking (SPATT); Galician Rías Dinophysis; early warning DSP outbreaks; HAB monitoring; modeling toxin accumulation; Solid Phase Adsorbing Toxin Tracking (SPATT); Galician Rías
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Pizarro, G.; Moroño, Á.; Paz, B.; Franco, J.M.; Pazos, Y.; Reguera, B. Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3823-3845.

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