Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3823-3845; doi:10.3390/md11103823
Article

Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish

1,†email, 2email, 1email, 3email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 10 July 2013; in revised form: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week−1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks.
Keywords: Dinophysis; early warning DSP outbreaks; HAB monitoring; modeling toxin accumulation; Solid Phase Adsorbing Toxin Tracking (SPATT); Galician Rías
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pizarro, G.; Moroño, Á.; Paz, B.; Franco, J.M.; Pazos, Y.; Reguera, B. Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3823-3845.

AMA Style

Pizarro G, Moroño Á, Paz B, Franco JM, Pazos Y, Reguera B. Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(10):3823-3845.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Ángeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz. 2013. "Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 10: 3823-3845.


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