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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2467-2480; doi:10.3390/md10112467

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
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Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-1, 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2A, and 1-O-[β-galacto furanosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→9)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyr anosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2B. PNG-2A and PNG-2B represent the first GM4 elongation products in nature.
Keywords: glycosphingolipid; ganglioside; GM4; starfish; Protoreaster nodosus glycosphingolipid; ganglioside; GM4; starfish; Protoreaster nodosus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Pan, K.; Tanaka, C.; Inagaki, M.; Higuchi, R.; Miyamoto, T. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2467-2480.

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