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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2467-2480; doi:10.3390/md10112467
Article

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus

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Received: 8 October 2012; in revised form: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
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Abstract: Three new ganglioside molecular species, termed PNG-1, PNG-2A, and PNG-2B were isolated from pyloric caeca of the starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, and characterized as 1-O-[8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-1, 1-O-[β-galactofuranosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-8-O-methyl-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyranosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2A, and 1-O-[β-galacto furanosyl-(1→3)-α-galactopyranosyl-(1→9)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminosyl-(2→3)-β-galactopyr anosyl]-ceramide for PNG-2B. PNG-2A and PNG-2B represent the first GM4 elongation products in nature.
Keywords: glycosphingolipid; ganglioside; GM4; starfish; Protoreaster nodosus glycosphingolipid; ganglioside; GM4; starfish; Protoreaster nodosus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, K.; Tanaka, C.; Inagaki, M.; Higuchi, R.; Miyamoto, T. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2467-2480.

AMA Style

Pan K, Tanaka C, Inagaki M, Higuchi R, Miyamoto T. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(11):2467-2480.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Ke; Tanaka, Chiaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Tomofumi. 2012. "Isolation and Structure Elucidation of GM4-Type Gangliosides from the Okinawan Starfish Protoreaster nodosus." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 11: 2467-2480.



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