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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(11), 2448-2466; doi:10.3390/md10112448
Article

Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei

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Received: 31 July 2012; in revised form: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
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Abstract: Using theonellasterol as a novel FXR antagonist hit, we prepared a series of semi-synthetic derivatives in order to gain insight into the structural requirements for exhibiting antagonistic activity. These derivatives are characterized by modification at the exocyclic carbon-carbon double bond at C-4 and at the hydroxyl group at C-3 and were prepared from theonellasterol using simple reactions. Pharmacological investigation showed that the introduction of a hydroxyl group at C-4 as well as the oxidation at C-3 with or without concomitant modification at the exomethylene functionality preserve the ability of theonellasterol to inhibit FXR transactivation caused by CDCA. Docking analysis showed that the placement of these molecules in the FXR-LBD is well stabilized when on ring A functional groups, able to form hydrogen bonds and π interactions, are present.
Keywords: marine sponges; Theonella swinhoei; steroids; theonellasterol; nuclear receptors; farnesoid-X-receptor; chemical modification; structure-activity relationship marine sponges; Theonella swinhoei; steroids; theonellasterol; nuclear receptors; farnesoid-X-receptor; chemical modification; structure-activity relationship
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sepe, V.; Ummarino, R.; D'Auria, M.V.; Taglialatela-Scafati, O.; Marino, S.D.; D'Amore, C.; Renga, B.; Chini, M.G.; Bifulco, G.; Nakao, Y.; Fusetani, N.; Fiorucci, S.; Zampella, A. Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2448-2466.

AMA Style

Sepe V, Ummarino R, D'Auria MV, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Marino SD, D'Amore C, Renga B, Chini MG, Bifulco G, Nakao Y, Fusetani N, Fiorucci S, Zampella A. Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(11):2448-2466.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sepe, Valentina; Ummarino, Raffaella; D'Auria, Maria V.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Marino, Simona D.; D'Amore, Claudio; Renga, Barbara; Chini, Maria G.; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nakao, Yoichi; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela. 2012. "Preliminary Structure-Activity Relationship on Theonellasterol, a New Chemotype of FXR Antagonist, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 11: 2448-2466.


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