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Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection
Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS, B2B 5E3, Canada
Genome Research Chair Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Acadian Seaplants Limited, 30 Brown Avenue, Dartmouth, NS, B3B 1X8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2011; in revised form: 27 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 11 January 2012
Abstract: The effects of Tasco®, a product made from the brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) were tested for the ability to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A water extract of Tasco® (TWE) reduced P. aeruginosa inflicted mortality in the nematode. The TWE, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, offered the maximum protection and induced the expression of innate immune response genes viz.; zk6.7 (Lypases), lys-1 (Lysozyme), spp-1 (Saponin like protein), f28d1.3 (Thaumatin like protein), t20g5.7 (Matridin SK domain protein), abf-1 (Antibacterial protein) and f38a1.5 (Lectin family protein). Further, TWE treatment also affected a number of virulence components of the P. aeuroginosa and reduced its secreted virulence factors such as lipase, proteases and toxic metabolites; hydrogen cyanide and pyocyanin. Decreased virulence factors were associated with a significant reduction in expression of regulatory genes involved in quorum sensing, lasI, lasR, rhlI and rhlR. In conclusion, the TWE-treatment protected the C. elegans against P. aeruginosa infection by a combination of effects on the innate immunity of the worms and direct effects on the bacterial quorum sensing and virulence factors.
Keywords: Tasco®; Ascophyllum nodosum; Caenorhabiditis elegans; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; virulence factors; innate immunity; gene expression; quorum sensing
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Kandasamy, S.; Khan, W.; Evans, F.; Critchley, A.T.; Prithiviraj, B. Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 84-105.
Kandasamy S, Khan W, Evans F, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B. Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(1):84-105.
Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan. 2012. "Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 1: 84-105.