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Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 17666, UAE
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
Abstract: Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 μM) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored.
Keywords: frog skin; magainin; PGLa; caerulein-precursor fragment; xenopsin-precursor-fragment; hymenochirin
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Conlon, J.M.; Mechkarska, M. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 58-77.
Conlon JM, Mechkarska M. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae. Pharmaceuticals. 2014; 7(1):58-77.
Conlon, J. Michael; Mechkarska, Milena. 2014. "Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae." Pharmaceuticals 7, no. 1: 58-77.