Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(1), 58-77; doi:10.3390/ph7010058
Review

Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae

Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 μM) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored.
Keywords: frog skin; magainin; PGLa; caerulein-precursor fragment; xenopsin-precursor-fragment; hymenochirin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Conlon, J.M.; Mechkarska, M. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 58-77.

AMA Style

Conlon JM, Mechkarska M. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae. Pharmaceuticals. 2014; 7(1):58-77.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Conlon, J. Michael; Mechkarska, Milena. 2014. "Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae." Pharmaceuticals 7, no. 1: 58-77.

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