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Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(1), 58-77; doi:10.3390/ph7010058
Review

Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae

*  and
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 17666, UAE
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 15 January 2014
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Abstract

Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 μM) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored.
Keywords: frog skin; magainin; PGLa; caerulein-precursor fragment; xenopsin-precursor-fragment; hymenochirin frog skin; magainin; PGLa; caerulein-precursor fragment; xenopsin-precursor-fragment; hymenochirin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Conlon, J.M.; Mechkarska, M. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 58-77.

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