Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 189-208; doi:10.3390/ph5020189
Article

Effects of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on Inhibition of Proliferation, Apoptosis Induction and NF-κB Signaling of Immortalized and Cancer Cell Lines

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, Mainz 55128, Germany 2 Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine, Heidelberg 69126, Germany 3 Biomedical Sciences Institute Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Porto 4000, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2012; in revised form: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytomedicine)
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Abstract: Scrophularia ningpoensis has been used in China for centuries as a herbal tea to treat various diseases. Based on the numerous animal studies on its pharmaceutical effects and the long time clinical experiences, we studied the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying the bioactivity of aqueous extract of Scrophularia and its isolated compounds. Seven isolated compounds, unlike Scrophularia extract, failed to induce cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells, but their combination improved the effect of extract. Tumor cell line selectivity was not observed, when we studied its cytotoxic effect on melanoma cell lines. The apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia extract have been demonstrated on HaCaT cells. The extract induced those effects potentially through affecting the MAPK pathway and inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, Microarray-based bioinformatical analyses on the compound acetoside from Scrophularia revealed a gene expression profile which confirmed our findings with the extract on proliferation inhibition, anti-inflammation and apoptosis. With DNA alkylation as major proposed mechanism of action, we assume acetoside as one of the active compounds in Scrophularia.
Keywords: apoptosis; microarrays; pharmacogenomics; pharmacognosy; phytotherapy; signaling pathways

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, X.; Eichhorn, T.; Greten, H.J.; Efferth, T. Effects of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on Inhibition of Proliferation, Apoptosis Induction and NF-κB Signaling of Immortalized and Cancer Cell Lines. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 189-208.

AMA Style

Shen X, Eichhorn T, Greten HJ, Efferth T. Effects of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on Inhibition of Proliferation, Apoptosis Induction and NF-κB Signaling of Immortalized and Cancer Cell Lines. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(2):189-208.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shen, Xiao; Eichhorn, Tolga; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas. 2012. "Effects of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on Inhibition of Proliferation, Apoptosis Induction and NF-κB Signaling of Immortalized and Cancer Cell Lines." Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 2: 189-208.

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