Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Pharmaceuticals, Volume 5, Issue 2 (February 2012), Pages 114-248

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses of a Papaver somniferum T-DNA Insertional Mutant with Altered Alkaloid Composition
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 133-154; doi:10.3390/ph5020133
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 15 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 2 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into
[...] Read more.
The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex) was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium) by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytomedicine)
Open AccessArticle Radiosynthesis and Radiotracer Properties of a 7-(2-[18F]Fluoroethoxy)-6-methoxypyrrolidinylquinazoline for Imaging of Phosphodiesterase 10A with PET
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 169-188; doi:10.3390/ph5020169
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a key enzyme of intracellular signal transduction which is involved in the regulation of neurotransmission. The molecular imaging of PDE10A by PET is expected to allow a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to PDE10A expression and
[...] Read more.
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a key enzyme of intracellular signal transduction which is involved in the regulation of neurotransmission. The molecular imaging of PDE10A by PET is expected to allow a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to PDE10A expression and function in the brain. The aim of this study was to develop a new 18F-labeled PDE10A ligand based on a 6,7-dimethoxy-4-pyrrolidinylquinazoline and to evaluate its properties in biodistribution studies. Nucleophilic substitution of the 7-tosyloxy-analogue led to the 7-[18F]fluoroethoxy-derivative [18F]IV with radiochemical yields of 25% ± 9% (n = 9), high radiochemical purity of ≥99% and specific activities of 110–1,100 GBq/μmol. [18F]IV showed moderate PDE10A affinity (KD,PDE10A = 14 nM) and high metabolic stability in the brain of female CD-1 mice, wherein the radioligand entered rapidly with a peak uptake of 2.3% ID/g in striatum at 5 min p.i. However, ex vivo autoradiographic and in vivo blocking studies revealed no target specific accumulation and demonstrated [18F]IV to be inapplicable for imaging PDE10A with PET. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiochemistry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. on Inhibition of Proliferation, Apoptosis Induction and NF-κB Signaling of Immortalized and Cancer Cell Lines
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 189-208; doi:10.3390/ph5020189
Received: 1 February 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scrophularia ningpoensis has been used in China for centuries as a herbal tea to treat various diseases. Based on the numerous animal studies on its pharmaceutical effects and the long time clinical experiences, we studied the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying the bioactivity
[...] Read more.
Scrophularia ningpoensis has been used in China for centuries as a herbal tea to treat various diseases. Based on the numerous animal studies on its pharmaceutical effects and the long time clinical experiences, we studied the molecular and cellular mechanism underlying the bioactivity of aqueous extract of Scrophularia and its isolated compounds. Seven isolated compounds, unlike Scrophularia extract, failed to induce cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells, but their combination improved the effect of extract. Tumor cell line selectivity was not observed, when we studied its cytotoxic effect on melanoma cell lines. The apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Scrophularia extract have been demonstrated on HaCaT cells. The extract induced those effects potentially through affecting the MAPK pathway and inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, Microarray-based bioinformatical analyses on the compound acetoside from Scrophularia revealed a gene expression profile which confirmed our findings with the extract on proliferation inhibition, anti-inflammation and apoptosis. With DNA alkylation as major proposed mechanism of action, we assume acetoside as one of the active compounds in Scrophularia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytomedicine)
Open AccessArticle Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 236-248; doi:10.3390/ph5020236
Received: 23 December 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 10 February 2012 / Published: 16 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass
[...] Read more.
Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview TRPV1 Antagonists and Chronic Pain: Beyond Thermal Perception
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 114-132; doi:10.3390/ph5020114
Received: 18 November 2011 / Revised: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 2 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, considerable evidence as accumulated to support the development of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. Whereas there is a widely accepted rationale for the development of TRPV1 antagonists for the
[...] Read more.
In the last decade, considerable evidence as accumulated to support the development of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. Whereas there is a widely accepted rationale for the development of TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of various inflammatory pain conditions, their development for indications of chronic pain, where conditions of tactical, mechanical and spontaneous pain predominate, is less clear. Preclinical localization and expression studies provide a firm foundation for the use of molecules targeting TRPV1 for conditions of bone pain, osteoarthritis and neuropathic pain. Selective TRPV1 antagonists weakly attenuate tactile and mechanical hypersensivity and are partially effective for behavioral and electrophysiological endpoints that incorporate aspects of spontaneous pain. While initial studies with TRPV1 antagonist in normal human subjects indicate a loss of warm thermal perception, clinical studies assessing allelic variants suggests that TRPV1 may mediate other sensory modalities under certain conditions. The focus of this review is to summarize the current perspectives of TRPV1 for the treatment of conditions beyond those with a primary thermal sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Pain Targets and Therapy)
Open AccessReview Concerns Regarding the Use of Dabigatran for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 155-168; doi:10.3390/ph5020155
Received: 26 December 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 February 2012 / Published: 3 February 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dabigatran is an oral thrombin inhibitor which has been approved in several countries as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists for the prevention of stroke or embolism in atrial fibrillation patients. Dabigatran is introduced into clinical practice, although many issues regarding this drug are still
[...] Read more.
Dabigatran is an oral thrombin inhibitor which has been approved in several countries as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists for the prevention of stroke or embolism in atrial fibrillation patients. Dabigatran is introduced into clinical practice, although many issues regarding this drug are still unclear, like laboratory monitoring, use in elderly patients, drug- and food-interactions and use in patients with renal insufficiency. Additionally, there is no antidote for dabigatran. Thus, aim of the present review is to give an overview of concerns and unresolved issues concerning dabigatran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticoagulants)
Open AccessReview Structure Based Antibody-Like Peptidomimetics
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(2), 209-235; doi:10.3390/ph5020209
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 17 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 16 February 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and soluble receptors represent new classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of several diseases. High affinity and high specificity biologics can be utilized for variety of clinical purposes. Monoclonal antibodies have been used as diagnostic agents when
[...] Read more.
Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and soluble receptors represent new classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of several diseases. High affinity and high specificity biologics can be utilized for variety of clinical purposes. Monoclonal antibodies have been used as diagnostic agents when coupled with radionuclide, immune modulatory agents or in the treatment of cancers. Among other limitations of using large molecules for therapy the actual cost of biologics has become an issue. There is an effort among chemists and biologists to reduce the size of biologics which includes monoclonal antibodies and receptors without a reduction of biological efficacy. Single chain antibody, camel antibodies, Fv fragments are examples of this type of deconstructive process. Small high-affinity peptides have been identified using phage screening. Our laboratory used a structure-based approach to develop small-size peptidomimetics from the three-dimensional structure of proteins with immunoglobulin folds as exemplified by CD4 and antibodies. Peptides derived either from the receptor or their cognate ligand mimics the functions of the parental macromolecule. These constrained peptides not only provide a platform for developing small molecule drugs, but also provide insight into the atomic features of protein-protein interactions. A general overview of the reduction of monoclonal antibodies to small exocyclic peptide and its prospects as a useful diagnostic and as a drug in the treatment of cancer are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptidomimetics)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Pharmaceuticals Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
pharmaceuticals@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Pharmaceuticals
Back to Top