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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(3), 514-540; doi:10.3390/ph3030514
Review

Inhaled Corticosteroids

Received: 29 January 2010; Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiasthmatic Drugs)
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Abstract: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective controllers of asthma. They suppress inflammation mainly by switching off multiple activated inflammatory genes through reversing histone acetylation via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). Through suppression of airway inflammation ICS reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and control asthma symptoms. ICS are now first-line therapy for all patients with persistent asthma, controlling asthma symptoms and preventing exacerbations. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists added to ICS further improve asthma control and are commonly given as combination inhalers, which improve compliance and control asthma at lower doses of corticosteroids. By contrast, ICS provide much less clinical benefit in COPD and the inflammation is resistant to the action of corticosteroids. This appears to be due to a reduction in HDAC2 activity and expression as a result of oxidative stress. ICS are added to bronchodilators in patients with severe COPD to reduce exacerbations. ICS, which are absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation, have negligible systemic side effects at the doses most patients require, although the high doses used in COPD has some systemic side effects and increases the risk of developing pneumonia.
Keywords: glucocorticoid receptor; nuclear factor-κB; inflammatory gene; histone deacetylase; eosinophil; epithelial cell; long-acting β2-agonist; inflammation; pneumonia glucocorticoid receptor; nuclear factor-κB; inflammatory gene; histone deacetylase; eosinophil; epithelial cell; long-acting β2-agonist; inflammation; pneumonia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barnes, P.J. Inhaled Corticosteroids. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 514-540.

AMA Style

Barnes PJ. Inhaled Corticosteroids. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(3):514-540.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barnes, Peter J. 2010. "Inhaled Corticosteroids." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 3: 514-540.



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