Next Article in Journal
Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Microimmunosensor
Previous Article in Journal
Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada
Previous Article in Special Issue
Synthesis and Characterization of Anti-HER2 Antibody Conjugated CdSe/CdZnS Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9414-9443; doi:10.3390/s91109414

Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 28 October 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [371 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  


Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids) in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; seafood; shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; surface plasmon resonance biosensor; seafood; shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; surface plasmon resonance

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vilariño, N.; Fonfría, E.S.; Louzao, M.C.; Botana, L.M. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins. Sensors 2009, 9, 9414-9443.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top