Sensors 2008, 8(5), 3082-3105; doi:10.3390/s8053082
Review

Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets

1 Department of Chemistry, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA 2 Coherent Light and Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, College of Physics, Jilin University Changchun, Jilin, 130031 China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2008; Accepted: 23 April 2008 / Published: 8 May 2008
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Abstract: Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) materials are promising labeling reagents for sensitive determination and imaging of biological targets. In the near-infrared region biological samples have low background fluorescence signals, providing high signal to noise ratio. Meanwhile, near-infrared radiation can penetrate into sample matrices deeply due to low light scattering. Thus, in vivo and in vitro imaging of biological samples can be achieved by employing the NIRF probes. To take full advantage of NIRF materials in the biological and biomedical field, one of the key issues is to develop intense and biocompatible NIRF probes. In this review, a number of NIRF materials are discussed including traditional NIRF dye molecules, newly developed NIRF quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes, as well as rare earth metal compounds. The use of some NIRF materials in various nanostructures is illustrated. The enhancement of NIRF using metal nanostructures is covered as well. The fluorescence mechanism and bioapplications of each type of the NIRF materials are discussed in details.
Keywords: Near-Infrared; Fluorescence; Metal-Enhancement; Nanomaterials; Bioimaging

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amiot, C.L.; Xu, S.; Liang, S.; Pan, L.; Zhao, J.X. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets. Sensors 2008, 8, 3082-3105.

AMA Style

Amiot CL, Xu S, Liang S, Pan L, Zhao JX. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets. Sensors. 2008; 8(5):3082-3105.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amiot, Carrie L.; Xu, Shuping; Liang, Song; Pan, Lingyun; Zhao, Julia X. 2008. "Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets." Sensors 8, no. 5: 3082-3105.

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