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Sensors 2008, 8(11), 6952-6971; doi:10.3390/s8116952

A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors

1
Department of Automation of Testing and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
2
MEMS Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2008 / Revised: 19 September 2008 / Accepted: 30 October 2008 / Published: 5 November 2008
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters – wheelbase and number of axles – to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle’s speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs) were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one) are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves the results of a single sensor data, which is trained on the whole multisensor data set. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vehicle classification; Embedded strain gauge sensor; Support vector machine; Multisensor data fusion Vehicle classification; Embedded strain gauge sensor; Support vector machine; Multisensor data fusion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Zhang, W.; Wang, Q.; Suo, C. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors. Sensors 2008, 8, 6952-6971.

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