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Monitoring of ULF (Ultra-Low-Frequency) Geomagnetic Variations Associated with Earthquakes
Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1141-1158; doi:10.3390/s7071141

VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes

Department of Electronic Engineering and Research Station on Seismo Electromagnetics, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
Received: 18 June 2007 / Accepted: 5 July 2007 / Published: 10 July 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Disaster and Emergency Management Decision Making)
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It is recently recognized that the ionosphere is very sensitive to seismic effects,and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes, seems to bevery promising for short-term earthquake prediction. We have proposed a possible use ofVLF/LF (very low frequency (3-30 kHz) /low frequency (30-300 kHz)) radio sounding ofthe seismo-ionospheric perturbations. A brief history of the use of subionospheric VLF/LFpropagation for the short-term earthquake prediction is given, followed by a significantfinding of ionospheric perturbation for the Kobe earthquake in 1995. After showingprevious VLF/LF results, we present the latest VLF/LF findings; One is the statisticalcorrelation of the ionospheric perturbation with earthquakes and the second is a case studyfor the Sumatra earthquake in December, 2004, indicating the spatical scale and dynamicsof ionospheric perturbation for this earthquake.
Keywords: Ionospheric perturbations; VLF/LF radio sounding; earthquake prediction Ionospheric perturbations; VLF/LF radio sounding; earthquake prediction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hayakawa, M. VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes. Sensors 2007, 7, 1141-1158.

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