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Sensors, Volume 5, Issue 11 (November 2005), Pages 465-508

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Research

Open AccessArticle Potentiometric CO2 Sensor Using Li Ion Conducting Li3PO4Thin Film Electrolyte
Sensors 2005, 5(11), 465-472; doi:10.3390/s5110465
Received: 9 June 2005 / Accepted: 15 June 2005 / Published: 16 November 2005
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Li+ ion conducting Li3PO4 thin film electrolytes with thickness 300nm, 650nm and1.2μm were deposited on Al2O3 substrate at room temperature by thermal evaporation method.Reference and sensing electrodes were printed on Au interfaces by conventional screen [...] Read more.
Li+ ion conducting Li3PO4 thin film electrolytes with thickness 300nm, 650nm and1.2μm were deposited on Al2O3 substrate at room temperature by thermal evaporation method.Reference and sensing electrodes were printed on Au interfaces by conventional screen printingtechnique. The overall dimension of the sensor was 3 x 3 mm and of electrodes were 1 x 1.5 mmeach. The fabricated solid state potentiometric CO2 sensors of type: CO2, O2, Au, Li2TiO3-TiO2 / Li3PO4 / Li2CO3, Au, CO2, O2 have been investigated for CO2 sensing properties. Theelectromotive force (emf) and δemf/dec values of the sensors are dependent on the thickness ofthe electrolyte film. 1.2μm thickness deposited sensor has shown good sensing behavior than thesensors with less thickness. The δemf values of the sensor are linearly increased up to 460oCoperating temperature and became stable above 460oC. Between 460-500oC temperatures regionthe sensor has reached an equilibrium state and the experimentally obtained δemf values areabout 80% of the theoretically calculated values. A Nernst’s slope of -61mV/decade has beenobtained between 250 to 5000 ppm of CO2 concentration at 500oC temperature. The sensor issuitable for ease of mass production in view of its miniaturization and cost effectiveness aftersome further improvement. Full article
Open AccessArticle Brain Tissue Oxygen: In Vivo Monitoring with Carbon Paste Electrodes
Sensors 2005, 5(11), 473-487; doi:10.3390/s5110473
Received: 28 April 2005 / Accepted: 1 July 2005 / Published: 16 November 2005
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this communication we review selected experiments involving the use ofcarbon paste electrodes (CPEs) to monitor and measure brain tissue O2 levels in awakefreely-moving animals. Simultaneous measurements of rCBF were performed using the H2clearance technique. Voltammetric techniques used include [...] Read more.
In this communication we review selected experiments involving the use ofcarbon paste electrodes (CPEs) to monitor and measure brain tissue O2 levels in awakefreely-moving animals. Simultaneous measurements of rCBF were performed using the H2clearance technique. Voltammetric techniques used include both differential pulse (O2) andconstant potential amperometry (rCBF). Mild hypoxia and hyperoxia produced rapidchanges (decrease and increase respectively) in the in vivo O2 signal. Neuronal activation(tail pinch and stimulated grooming) produced similar increases in both O2 and rCBFindicating that CPE O2 currents provide an index of increases in rCBF when such increasesexceed O2 utilization. Saline injection produced a transient increase in the O2 signal whilechloral hydrate produced slower more long-lasting changes that accompanied the behavioralchanges associated with anaesthesia. Acetazolamide increased O2 levels through an increasein rCBF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Paste Electrodes)
Open AccessArticle Robust Multivariable Estimation of the Relevant Information Coming from a Wheel Speed Sensor and an Accelerometer Embedded in a Car under Performance Tests
Sensors 2005, 5(11), 488-508; doi:10.3390/s5110488
Received: 30 September 2005 / Accepted: 25 September 2005 / Published: 29 November 2005
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speedsensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimalmultivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noisescorrupting the relevant information [...] Read more.
In the present paper, in order to estimate the response of both a wheel speedsensor and an accelerometer placed in a car under performance tests, robust and optimalmultivariable estimation techniques are used. In this case, the disturbances and noisescorrupting the relevant information coming from the sensors’ outputs are so dangerous thattheir negative influence on the electrical systems impoverish the general performance of thecar. In short, the solution to this problem is a safety related problem that deserves our fullattention. Therefore, in order to diminish the negative effects of the disturbances and noiseson the car’s electrical and electromechanical systems, an optimum observer is used. Theexperimental results show a satisfactory improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of therelevant signals and demonstrate the importance of the fusion of several intelligent sensordesign techniques when designing the intelligent sensors that today’s cars need. Full article

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