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Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072180

An Electronic Nose Based Method for the Discrimination of Weathered Petroleum-Derived Products

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, IVAGRO, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
2
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

In recent years pollution due to hydrocarbon spills has increased markedly as a result of the numerous advances in technologies and industrial processes. Anthropogenic activities (accidental or illegal) are responsible for most of these incidents. In some cases, the spills are not detected at the moment they occur and the contaminants are subjected to different degradation phenomena that may change the chemical composition of the hydrocarbon over time. An incorrect or ineffective identification of the spill could lead to significant consequences, bearing in mind that most spills are hazardous to the environment. In the present work the capacity of the analytical technique based on the Electronic Nose (eNose) combined with chemometrics in the identification and discrimination of different weathered petroleum-derived products (PDPs) was studied. Different volumes (40 μL and 80 μL) of PDPs (gasoline, diesel, and paraffin) were poured onto different supports (wood, cork, paper, and cotton sheet) and subjected to a natural weathering process by evaporation for one month. The porosity of the support was also studied. The application of linear discriminant analysis allowed the full discrimination of the samples according to the presence/absence of PDP and a 97.7% of correct discrimination of the different PDPs regardless of the weathering time, support or volume used. The results show that the system is capable of detecting and discriminating the presence of petroleum-derived products in any of the situations studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemometrics; diesel; discrimination; eNose; environmental forensics; evaporation; fingerprints; gasoline; paraffin; petroleum-derived products; weathering chemometrics; diesel; discrimination; eNose; environmental forensics; evaporation; fingerprints; gasoline; paraffin; petroleum-derived products; weathering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aliaño-González, M.J.; Ferreiro-González, M.; Barbero, G.F.; Ayuso, J.; Álvarez, J.A.; Palma, M.; Barroso, C.G. An Electronic Nose Based Method for the Discrimination of Weathered Petroleum-Derived Products. Sensors 2018, 18, 2180.

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