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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 912; doi:10.3390/s16060912

Accuracy of WAAS-Enabled GPS-RF Warning Signals When Crossing a Terrestrial Geofence

Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, USA
Department of Forest and Rangeland Stewardship, Colorado State University, 1472 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Department of Forest Management, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 18 June 2016]   |  


Geofences are virtual boundaries based on geographic coordinates. When combined with global position system (GPS), or more generally global navigation satellite system (GNSS) transmitters, geofences provide a powerful tool for monitoring the location and movements of objects of interest through proximity alarms. However, the accuracy of geofence alarms in GNSS-radio frequency (GNSS-RF) transmitter receiver systems has not been tested. To achieve these goals, a cart with a GNSS-RF locator was run on a straight path in a balanced factorial experiment with three levels of cart speed, three angles of geofence intersection, three receiver distances from the track, and three replicates. Locator speed, receiver distance and geofence intersection angle all affected geofence alarm accuracy in an analysis of variance (p = 0.013, p = 2.58 × 10−8, and p = 0.0006, respectively), as did all treatment interactions (p < 0.0001). Slower locator speed, acute geofence intersection angle, and closest receiver distance were associated with reduced accuracy of geofence alerts. View Full-Text
Keywords: geofence; virtual fence; real-time GPS; GPS-RF; GNSS; GNSS-RF; position, navigation and timing geofence; virtual fence; real-time GPS; GPS-RF; GNSS; GNSS-RF; position, navigation and timing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grayson, L.M.; Keefe, R.F.; Tinkham, W.T.; Eitel, J.U.H.; Saralecos, J.D.; Smith, A.M.S.; Zimbelman, E.G. Accuracy of WAAS-Enabled GPS-RF Warning Signals When Crossing a Terrestrial Geofence. Sensors 2016, 16, 912.

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