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Sensors 2016, 16(3), 297; doi:10.3390/s16030297

A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks

School of Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Lanarkshire, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Lloret Mauri
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks 2016)
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Abstract

Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. The opportunistic routing provides a reliable solution with the aid of intermediate nodes’ collaboration to relay a packet toward the destination. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, called opportunistic void avoidance routing (OVAR), to address the void problem and also the energy-reliability trade-off in the forwarding set selection. OVAR takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of OVAR in selecting the candidate nodes in the vicinity of each other leads to the resolution of the hidden node problem. OVAR is also able to select the forwarding set in any direction from the sender, which increases its flexibility to bypass any kind of void area with the minimum deviation from the optimal path. The results of our extensive simulation study show that OVAR outperforms other protocols in terms of the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, hop count and traversed distance. View Full-Text
Keywords: routing protocol; void area; underwater sensor network routing protocol; void area; underwater sensor network
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghoreyshi, S.M.; Shahrabi, A.; Boutaleb, T. A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 297.

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