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Sensors 2015, 15(6), 12802-12815; doi:10.3390/s150612802

Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuxing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Medical University Hospital, No. 252, Wuxing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuxing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine and Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wenhua 1st Rd, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Sensors for Tissue Engineering)
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Abstract

Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was <±3%. Although the proposed potentiometric device was built using a commercial wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: potentiometer; real time; pig bladder; implantable; sensor potentiometer; real time; pig bladder; implantable; sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S.-C.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Fan, W.-J.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, C.-L.; Wei, W.-F.; Peng, C.-W. Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study. Sensors 2015, 15, 12802-12815.

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